Optimization of Cytochrome C Production


The study aimed to optimize cytochrome C production of Pseudomonas spp. using indigenous agricultural products as carbohydrate sources in the fermentation medium. Canistel fruit (locally known as chesa) and sugarcane were used as carbohydrate sources in the fermentation medium at different pHs and their effectiveness was compared to that of molasses, the one being used by laboratories for fermentation. After 72 hours of fermentation, the cytochrome C yield of Pseudomonas spp. fermented in the three different media was determined spectrophotometrically using Bradford Protein Assay. Cytochrome C production of Pseudomonas spp. was optimized at acidic pH using the three carbohydrate sources. Molasses still proved to be the best carbohydrate source at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0, which are neutral and slightly neutral pH. However, it was found out that canistel fruit and sugarcane juice are as effective as molasses in promoting cytochrome C of Pseudomonas spp. at pH 5.0.


Many products of commercial importance are now produced with the help of microbial fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria are used in the production of acidophilus milk, yogurt, pickle, olives, sanserkurt; several other bacteria types are used to produce cheese. Bacteria are also involved in making fermented meats like salami and in the production of vinegar, soy sauce, chocolate, essential amino acids, and vitamins. Some produce biocides and antibiotics that are used to control pests and fight infections. Because of their prolific reproduction rates, bacteria are also ideal “factories” for the production of biomolecules. Bacteria have been genetically engineered to produce certain vaccines, human growth hormones, insulin, and many other clinically important compounds like cytochrome C.

Materials & Equipment

Selected References:

Ladish, et al. 2000. Molecular Cell Biology. 4thed. W.H. Freeman and Company. Danishhefskt, Isidore K. 1980. Biochemistry for Medical Sciences. Little Brown Company. Nestor, Edwin L. 1999. Microbiology, 7th ed. McGraw-Hill.

Further clarification of the procedures and results should be directed to the researchers and adviser.

Leonard N. Balon
Ma. Shiela R. Data
Cressa Ria P. Fulong
Mark Anthony B. Pelaez

Ms. Marie Christine W. Merca
Philippine Science High School
Bicol Region Campus