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Betel Nut Extract as Component of Adhesives

The increase in the demand for adhesives in several business sectors calls for higher production, which requires more sources of raw materials for adhesive components.  Modern methods of adhesive formulation usually use harmful synthetic chemicals and animal proteins that contribute to damages in the environment. Thus, there is a need to look for more natural sources. This study tested the suitability of betel nut extract as a component of adhesive.

 
The Toxicity of Wild Yam as Tested on Brine Shrimp

This study aims to evaluate the toxicity of crude extracts obtained from the tubers of wild yam, a root crop utilized as raw material in several native delicacies, through a biological assay. The procedure involved the exposure of the test animals, brine shrimps, to different concentrations prepared from wild yam extracts. The toxicity of the treatments was evaluated using mortality as the parameter. The mortality among the treated and control samples were recorded for 48 hours after treatment application. It was found that the extracts of the said plants promoted mortality and thus, toxicity on the test specimen.

 
Fungi as Biological Control Agents Against Termites

This research dealt with the screening and bioassay of Bb1, MaBb and Fm11 strains of two fungi species, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, against adult termites. The methodology was divided into two phases. The first phase enabled the researchers to find out the most virulent fungi strain. The mortality promoted by the different strains on test insect was recorded and the data were subjected to statistical treatments to determine significant treatments to determine significant differences among the effectiveness of the strains and their corresponding LD50 and LD95 values.

 
Optimization of Cytochrome C Production

The study aimed to optimize cytochrome C production of Pseudomonas spp. using indigenous agricultural products as carbohydrate sources in the fermentation medium. Canistel fruit (locally known as chesa) and sugarcane were used as carbohydrate sources in the fermentation medium at different pHs and their effectiveness was compared to that of molasses, the one being used by laboratories for fermentation. After 72 hours of fermentation, the cytochrome C yield of Pseudomonas spp. fermented in the three different media was determined spectrophotometrically using Bradford Protein Assay.

 
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